Vitamin E Review
Vitamin E refers to a group of compounds that includes tocopherols and tocotrienols known to have antiosidant properties through inhibtin of the production of reactive oxygen species, and neutralizing unstable molecules that can damage cells. Moreover, Vitain E protects vitamin A and certain lipids from damage. Diets rich in vitamin E include margarine, soybean oil and dressing and may even help in prevent Alzheimer's disease and protect against prostate cancer.
Vitamin E is categorized under Vitamins.
It is also known as E Vitamin, Tocopherol Vitamin E.
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Benefits and Effectiveness
- Blood Flow - Increased 
- Blood Glucose - Neutral 
- Blood Pressure - Increased 
- C-Reactive Protein - Neutral 
- Cell Adhesion Factors (aka sCAM-1 - Neutral 
- Cognitive Decline - Neutral 
- Cortisol - Neutral 
- DNA Damage - Neutral 
- Fecal Weight - Neutral 
- Free Testosterone - Neutral 
- General Oxidation - Decrease 
- HDL-C - Neutral 
- Heart Rate - Neutral 
- Homocysteine - Neutral 
- Immunity (aka Immune system) - Increased 
- Insulin Sensitivity - Neutral 
- LDL-C - Neutral 
- Lipid Peroxidation - Increased 
- Liver Enzymes - Decrease 
- Memory - Neutral 
- Muscle Damage - Decrease 
- Prostate Cancer Risk - Increased 
- Red Blood Cell Count - Neutral 
- Euphoric - Neutral 
- Total Cholesterol - Neutral 
- Triglycerides - Neutral 
- White Blood Cell Count - Neutral 
- Serum T3 - Neutral 
- Serum T4 - Neutral 
- Symptoms of Alzheimers - Decrease 
- Interferon Gamma - Increased 
- Verbal Fluency - Neutral 
- Colon cancer risk - Neutral 
- Dysmenorrhea - Increased 
- Breast Cancer Risk - Neutral 
- Risk of Stroke - Neutral 
- Cardiovascular Disease Mortality - Decrease 
- Interleukin 4 - Increased 
- Bleeding Time - Neutral 
What is Vitamin E?
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Overview and Information
Vitamin E is term that encompasses eight different natural nutrients, which includes four different tocotrienols and four tocopherols. Each of these types is known to be a fat-soluble antioxidant, and every one of them is thought to have various degrees in our diet. Experts considered all of these eight molecules to be “tocochromanols.”
Alpha-tocopherol is the most popular among the vitamin E group and it has been thoroughly studied by many experts. The reason behind this is that alpha-tocopherol has the ability to get rid of the radicals that causes damage to our body. The suggested dosage for vitamin E in the Public health recommendation is usually measured in milligram equivalents alpha-tocopherol equivalents (mgATE).
On the other hand, despite the popularity of alpha-tocopherol in nutrition research and public health recommendation, experts are also highly interested in the potential health benefits that can be brought on by the lesser studies members of the vitamin E family, most importantly the tocotrienols. Like alpha-tocopherol and other tocopherols, tocotrienols are also considered to be naturally occurring forms of vitamin E. Because of the fact that tocotrienols cannot be converted by people onto alpha-tocopherols, they are not considered relevant in achieving the needs of Vitamin E. However, recent studies show that tocotrinols can provide some health benefits in a way that is recognizably different from alpha-tocopherols and other tocopherols.
Why is Vitamin E important for our body?
According to some experts, vitamin E plays an important role in the functional and structural maintenance of smooth, cardiac, and skeletal muscles. It helps boost the immune system to protect us from the oxidative damage that can cause heart disease, help relieve the symptoms associated with Alzheimer’s disease, prevent the occurrence of cancer, and may help the development of diabetes-related damages, especially in the eyes. Furthermore, it assists in the formation of red blood cells and aids in maintaining iron, vitamin A, vitamin K, and selenium.
What are the signs of Vitamin E deficiency?
Vitamin E deficiency is not common in humans. Individuals who have rare disorders of fat metabolism or does not have the ability to absorb dietary fat cannot absorb vitamin E. Individuals who suffer from rare genetic abnormalities in alpha-tocopherol transfer protein and very low birth weight or premature infants may also be at high risk in developing vitamin E deficiency. Chronic diarrhea, greasy stool, and inability to produce bile are the symptoms of vitamin E deficiency.
What are the benefits of Vitamin E?
Enhances eye health
Age-related macular degeneration or AMD is the leading cause of blindness in individuals over the age of fifty-five in the United States. Taking 400 IU of vitamin E in combination with other antioxidants such as beta-carotene (15 mg), zinc (80 mg), and vitamin C (500 mg) has been found to fight against developing age-related macular degeneration or AMD. Individuals who are suffering from advanced age-related macular degeneration have been found to achieve the greatest benefits.
Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, which is the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea. Vitamin E and vitamin C has been found to be effective in treating uveitis. A research study that was conducted on 130 individuals with uveitis showed that those who took vitamins E and C had clearer vision as compared to those who are in the placebo group.
Benefits individuals who have diabetes
Individuals who are suffering from diabetes tend to have low antioxidant levels. This led some experts to believe that this might be the reason why they are at high risk for certain conditions like heart disease. Studies show that antioxidants play an important role in controlling the cholesterol levels and blood sugar levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes while protecting those who have type 1 diabetes against the complications of nephropathy (kidney damage) and retinopathy (eye damage). A study suggest that those with type 2 diabetes who took about 400 IU of vitamin E daily have low risk of dying from heart disease and heart attack.
Pre-eclampsia is one of the most common causes of premature delivery. Women who have pre-eclampia have high amounts of protein in their urine and high blood pressure. Some research studies show that administering vitamin E in combination with vitamin C could help prevent pre-eclampsia in women who are at high risk. However, it is always better to stay on the safe side and talk to your doctor before deciding to take vitamin E during pregnancy.
What are the food sources of Vitamin E?
Wheat germ is known to be the richest source of Vitamin E. Other foods that contain high amount of vitamin E include eggs, liver, nuts (walnuts, almonds, and hazelnuts), mayonnaise, corn-oil margarine, sunflower seeds, cereal grains, dark green leafy vegetables such as kale and spinach, cold-pressed vegetable oils such as safflower, corn, olive, soybean, canola, and cottonseed, sweet potatoes, greens (collard, turnip, beet, and mustard), asparagus, yams, and avocado.
How much should you need to take?
It is highly suggested by experts that getting vitamin E from food is way better than taking supplements. Dosages for oral vitamin E range from 50 IU to 1,000 IU. A dose of 1,000 mg (1,500 IU) of vitamin E supplement a day is the upper tolerable intake level (UL) recommended by the Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine. According to some clinical trials, a dose of 400 to 800 IU per day is an effective treatment for adults. Like any supplements, it is very important that you should first consult your physician or any qualified medical professional before giving vitamin E supplements to your child.
The recommended dose of vitamin E is listed below (take note that 1 mg of vitamin E is equal to 1.5 IU):
- Older than 18 years: 22.4 IU per day
- Pregnant women: 22.4 IU per day
- Lactating women: 28.4 IU per day
- Newborn to 6 months: 6 IU per day
- Infants 7 months to 1 year: 7.5 IU per day
- Children 1 to 3 years: 9 IU per day
- Children 4 to 8 years: 10.4 IU per day
- Children 9 to 13 years: 16.4 IU per day
- Adolescents 14 to 18 years: 22.4 IU per day
Reviewer: Kathleen R. RN, PT
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Wiki Last Updated: 2016-02-16
Vitamin E Dosage
As an anti-coagulant, Vitamin E may increase the risk of bleeding problems. Moreover, it may also include nausea and vomiting, headaches, diarrhea, rash, weakness, and fatigue.
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